Welcome back to Open Minded Health Promotion! This week we’re looking at health promotion for transgender women and individuals assigned male at birth. Depending on your history some of these tips will apply more or less to you.
Please remember that these are specific aspects of health in addition to the standard recommendations for everyone (e.g., colonoscopy at age 50). Based on your health and your history, your doctor may have different recommendations for you. Listen to them.
All transgender women should consider…
- Talk with their doctor about their physical and mental health
- Practice safer sex where possible. Sexually transmitted infections can be prevented with condoms, dental dams, and other barriers. If you share sexual toys consider using condoms/barriers or cleaning them between uses.
- Consider using birth control methods if applicable. Hormone therapy is not birth control. Orchiectomy and vasectomy are permanent birth control options. You can still have vaginoplasty after those procedures if you desire. Alternatively, you can use condoms and asking your partner to use hormonal birth control.
- Store sperm before starting hormone therapy if you want genetic children. Estrogen and anti-androgens definitely affect fertility. You may never be able to have genetic children after hormone therapy.
- If you’re under the age of 26, get the HPV vaccine. This will reduce the chance for anal, oral, and penile cancers. Theoretically it may also reduce your risk for (neo) vaginal cancers.
- Protect yourself from HIV. Consider using pre-exposure prophylaxis in addition to condoms in sexual encounters that are higher risk. Avoid selling sex if you can.
- Avoid tobacco, limit alcohol, and limit/avoid other drugs. If you choose to use substances and are unwilling to stop, consider strategies to limit your risk. For example, consider participating in a clean needle program. Vaporize instead of smoke. And use as little of the drug as you can.
- Maintain a healthy weight. While being heavy sometimes helps to hide unwanted physical features, it’s also associated with heart disease and a lower quality of life.
- Limit high-potassium foods while on spironolactone if possible.
- Exercise regularly. Anything that gets your heart rate up and gets you moving is good for your body and mind! Weight bearing exercise, like walking and running, is best for bone health. If you’re looking to avoid “bulking” up your muscles, cardio exercises are probably your best bet. Staying physically active is especially important if you have a family or personal history of cardiovascular disease.
- Avoid buying hormones from online stores or on the street. There is no guarantee that you’re getting what you think you’re getting. Even if you do there is no guarantee that the drug was created in a safe lab or was stored properly. Drugs made in the US are guaranteed to contain what they said they do. They are also made in clean facilities and stored correctly so they don’t degrade. Additionally buying hormones online is far more expensive than getting a prescription and going to a pharmacy (especially with discount plans many pharmacies provide). Thus if you can get a prescription, doing so is less risky and far cheaper. For more information, see the FDA.
- Do not inject silicone. It not only disfigures, it kills. Additionally unsafe needle practices risk spreading HIV and Hepatitis C.
- If you’ve had genital surgery and you’re all healed from surgery, remember to continue to dilate and take care of your vagina. Keep in touch with your doctor as you need to. Call your surgeon if something specific to the surgery is concerning. Continue to practice safe sex. And enjoy!
Your doctor may wish to do other tests, including…
- Prostate cancer screening. Vaginoplasty does not remove the prostate. Testosterone is one of the major drivers of prostate cancer. Therefore trans women are at a lower risk for prostate cancer. However, that risk may still exist. Your doctor may recommend a blood test or a digital rectal exam. They should discuss with you the benefits and potential harms of screening.
- Breast examination for potential detection of breast cancer. We really don’t know yet how much risk trans women are at for breast cancer. Current data suggest that trans women are at low risk. However your doctor may wish to perform a breast examination as part of a physical exam. The goal of the exam is to detect lumps and/or bumps that may need further investigation. They may also teach you how to do a self-exam.
- Mammography. Again, this is for potential detection of breast cancer. Some doctors recommend following the typical recommendations for cis women. However even those recommendations vary depending on the organization recommending them. Most recommendations include a mammography every 1-2 years starting around age 50. Thus once you turn 50, consider talking with your doctor about the need for mammography.
- Vaginal examination. For post-op trans women, the vagina is either (penile) skin or intestine. Either way, it can still develop cancer. Some doctors recommend a visual inspection of the vagina to detect such cancers. Others do not.
- Testicular/penile examination. As long as you have a penis and testes, your doctor may recommend examination. They look for potential cancer as well as hernias (the “turn your head and cough” test).
And most importantly: Take care of your mental health. We lose far too many people every year to suicide. Perhaps worse, far more struggle with depression and anxiety. Do what you need to do to take care of you. If your normal strategies aren’t working then reach out. There is help.